Archive for July, 2009
Our heart is a complicated organ and it contains so many organs and sun organs. And a defect in any of such organ cause some problem to the heart which can be detected well by ECG. What is sinus bradycardia? This is an abnormal heart rhythm which originates due to problems in some parts and the heart rate becomes less than 60 beats per minute.
What is bradycardia can also be understood by the cause of of it. The abnormal or slow rhythm of heart occurs due to Increased vagal tone, an effect of medicines like the use of digitalis or beta-blockers or even quinidine. Intrinsic disease of the SA node, sleep disorder and may be sometimes due normal even.
What is sinus bradycardia ECG rate? You will find the following conditions in your ECG report if you have bradycardia. The heart rate is 60 or less, the rhythm is regular, the p waves are upright and consistent. The P-R interval is between 0.12-0.20 seconds in duration and the QRS complex is less than 0.12 seconds in width, and consistent in morphology.
Sinus bradycardia is exhibited by the symptoms of a general feeling of dizziness, accompanied by confusion, and angina. It could also exude in symptoms like shortness or inability to breathe effectively and normally. There is a difference between sick sinus symdrome and sinus bradycardia. In sinus bradycardia the heart rate is always slow or less than 60 BPM but in SSS the heart rate may be slow or fast depending in the condition of sinus node.
There are so many organs and types of organs in our body that we learn during our school days and later on forget them. One such part of heart is called sinus node which is the natural pacemaker of heart. Sinus node refers to a group of some consequential cells that are found in the atrium of your heart. The atrium is the exact location where electrical impulse takes place with the help of such sinus node. A defect in this sinus node and its abnormal rhythm of heart can lead to some complications. One such complication is called sinus arrhythmia. What is sinus arrhythmia?
Sinus arrhythmia is a complication related to your heart. And it is related to sinus node. Arrhythmia is referred to normal increase of heart rate when you take breathe in that is the increase of heart beats when normal inspiration takes place. This is a kind of natural response and happens more in children than in adults.
Sinus arrhythmia means normal increase in your heart beat rate not due to any exercise or physical work but when you inhale air- that is breath in. Actually it a natural response over which human being has no control. And most of the time arrhythmia does not have any symptom associated with it. But you really suffer from such ailment than on keen observation you will find that the heart beats faster when you breathe in and slower when you expire the air out. Yes , sinus arrhythmia also means decrease of heart rate when you breathe out. The heart rate slows down when you exhale the air that is breathe out in this cardiac disease. Thus what is sinus arrhythmia can be understood as a abnormal increase and decrease of heart rate when we breath in and out respectively.
What is sinus arrhythmia? This is a complication related to your heart. And it is related to sinus node. Sinus arrhythmia is referred to normal increase of heart rate when you take breathe in that is the increase of heart beats when normal inspiration takes place. This is a kind of natural response and happens more in children than in adults.
Sinus node refers to a group of some consequential cells that are found in the atrium of your heart. The atrium is the exact location where electrical impulse takes place with the help of such sinus node. These cells that is sinus nodes perform different functions. The sinus node on the right atrium acts like a pacemaker to regulate the heart beat and at the same the sinus nodes or cells produce proper rhythm in the electrical impulse that causes your heart to pump blood at regular intervals. If there is a dysfunction or some kind of abnormality in the sinus node and the heart beat increases as you breathe in than its called sinus arrhythmia.
What is sinus arrhythmia can also be explained as abnormal rhythm of sinus or simply in lay man's language the abnormal heart rhythm. This is also called respiratory sinus arrhythmia. If in one hand the heart rate increases with breathing in and then on the other hand the heart beat slows down during expiration of air from the lungs. Sinus arrhythmia affects the vagus nerve which is responsible for activating the nervous system-triggered parasympathetic input which regulates the heart beat.
What is paranasal sinus disease? This is the infection of any of the sinuses located in our facial regions. To understand this let us first see what is paranasal sinus and what kind of infection can occur in it?
Paranasal sinus refers to all the four sinuses that are air filled spaces communicating with nasal cavity. There sinuses are divided into four groups according to the site of their location and the bone associated with them. They are air filled spaces which communicate well with the nasal cavity and within the bones of the skull and face. The paranasal sinuses are vulnerable to infections of various kind and when they are infected by bacteria or other microbes or pollens or allergens. This is known as what is paranasal disease.
The human paranasal sinuses are divided into fours sub groups and are named according to the bones they are attached with. They are as follows. Maxillary sinuses also know as maxillary antra and they are the largest of all sinuses. They are located under the eye and due to the maxillary bone cheeks in this region they are called maxillary sinuses. Frontal sinuses are located over the eyes which are associated with frontal bones and hence called frontal sinuses. Ethmoid sinuses are between the space of nose and the eyes. Sphenoid sinuses are located sphenoid bones. It is located at the center of the skull and under the pituitary gland.
What is paranasal sinus disease? Its a kind of infection in any of the said sinuses by bacteria. The condition is called sinusitis. Thus paranasal sinus disease is more commonly know as sinusitis or sinus infection. Sometimes some deadly ailments like cancer or other diseases may also occur in Paranasal sinuses. They are very rare but constant instigation of the sinuses by pathogens or other allergens may result in such malignancies in the area.
What is ethmoid sinus? There are four pairs of sinuses in the facial region near your nose or eyes. They are called Paranasal sinuses. They are maxillary sinuses, frontal sinuses, sphenoid sinuses and ethmoid sinuses. Of these the ethmoid sinuses is the collective name of for ethmoidal air cells.
Let us understand more clearly what is ethmoid sinus? Each of the ethmoid sinuses is an air filled space enclosed by our ethmoid bone. This ethmoidal air cells consist of numerous thin walled cavities. The ethmoid sinus lies between the the orbits and upper parts of the nasal cavities. The laminae bone is a sheet of bone which separates them.
Here is more on what is ethmoid sinus. Ethmoid Sinuses are a pair of air filled, match box sized mucus lined cavities located just above the nose and below the eyes. The pair of sinuses drain into the nose through a set of small openings.
Anatomically ethmoid sinuses is divided into three parts. They are as follows:-Posterior ethmoid sinus, Middle Ethmoid sinus, and anterior ethmoid sinus. The anterior ethmoid sinus is the most crucial of all these divisions because the frontal and mxillary sinus drain through this section into the nose.
What is Ethmoid Sinus can also be understood as an infection of Ethmoid Sinus. The infection occurs due to bacteria like Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenza and Streptococcus pyogenesand others. Exposure to pollutants, smoke and allergens. Sometimes the sinus is also infected by fungal bodies, placement of feeding tubes, polyps, tumors and URT infection.
The world sinus literally means narrow passage. But in common medical knowledge of people it means the sinus cavities present in the facial region or some kind of infections to them. Hence whenever a medical term like 'what is cavernous sinus?' is used most of us would think that its some kind of infection of sinus. But the fact is that cavernous sinus is not related to any facial region or sinus cavities but our brain or head.
The cavernous sinus also called the lateral sellar compartment is found within our heads. This is a large collection of thin walled veins creating a cavity which is bordered by the temporal bone and the sphenoid bone and the skull.
If you ask a doctor about what is cavernous sinus he would explain you the above nerve cavity which acts as a cushion to the brain in the skull area and it contains the following pair of nerves. Vertically each cavernous sinus contains oculomotor nerve (CN III), ophthalmic nerve, the V1 branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V), trochlear nerve (CN IV) and maxillary nerve, the V2 branch of CN V.
On horizontal look its found that the cavernous sinus contains internal carotid artery along with sympathetic plexus and abducens nerve (CN VI).
The tributaries of this sinus capillary are superior and inferior ophthalmic veins, Superficial middle cerebral veins and sphenoparietal sinus. If there is excessive growth of pituitary gland, this results in a compression of the cavernous sinuses. This condition is called cavernous sinus syndrome and it may result in neurological disorder like ophthalmoplegia, ophthalmic sensory loss, and maxillary sensory loss.